Regardless of change as the criterion, or restructuring as a ruler, the 3.0 era of environmental protection industry with "seeking change" as its core is accelerating. So, how to build a pattern of environmental protection industry 3.0? How to build an effective market-oriented mechanism to leverage market forces to promote industrial development? How does the PPP model help build a market-oriented mechanism for ecological public goods and services?
Environmental protection industry is going through the 3.0 era
要弄清楚此问题，需要看看产业发展的过程。 ”中国土木工程学会水工业分会理事长张悦坦言。 "At the turning point of industrial shifting and upgrading, what is changing? To understand this problem, we need to look at the process of industrial development. " Zhang Yue, chairman of the China Civil Engineering Society Water Industry Branch, admitted frankly.
The industry generally believes that the development of the environmental industry has gone through three periods. 到了环境产业2.0时代，是用第三方治理模式来提供工业污染治理的环境服务； 如今，环境产业正在经历3.0时代，就是用市场化机制提供更多的生态公共产品和公共服务。 That is to say, in the era of environmental industry 1.0, market-oriented mechanisms are used to provide urban environmental public facilities and domestic pollution treatment services, including sewage and garbage treatment. In the era of environmental industry 2.0, third-party governance models are used to provide industrial pollution treatment environments. Services; today, the environmental industry is experiencing the 3.0 era, which is to provide more ecological public products and public services using market-oriented mechanisms.
Zhang Yue said that 2002 has profound significance for the development history of the environmental industry.
In 2002, documents such as "Opinions on Promoting the Development of Industrialization of Municipal Sewage and Waste Treatment" and "Opinions on Accelerating the Marketization of Municipal Public Utilities" and other documents have been issued, ending the debate over whether municipal public facilities can be market-based for many years. It is clear that the main direction of urban water industry reform is to promote marketization.
”张悦表示，两个政策的区别是，前者用“产业化”，强调要投入、产出、效率、开放、竞争，后者则强调“市场化”，正式把特许经营制度进行了规范。 "Today, these two policies have been used for 17 years, and the basic principles and spirit are still not out of date. " Zhang Yue said that the difference between the two policies is that the former uses "industrialization" and emphasizes the need for input and output. , Efficiency, openness and competition, the latter emphasizes "marketization" and formalized the franchise system. At that time, China's sewage and garbage treatment was almost blank, lacking money, technology, and people. If no measures were taken, the industry would miss a development opportunity.
In 2005, the Ministry of Construction issued the "Opinions on Strengthening the Supervision of Municipal Public Utilities", and the market-oriented supervision of the water industry was really put on the government's work agenda.
”张悦表示，文件明确了政府责任、市场全面开放、建立收费制度、强化政府监管等。 "The promulgation of this series of policies not only provided impetus for the process of industrial marketization, but also had an enlightening effect on the marketization development of China's environmental protection industry. " Zhang Yue said that the document clearly clarified the government's responsibility, the market was fully open, the establishment of a charging system, Strengthen government supervision, etc.
边界清晰，可计量、可考核、可支付、可固化，这是运作市场化的重要前提。 The reason why these breakthrough changes can be successful and have a far-reaching impact is that a very important constraint is that the areas covered by the document adhere to "one clear and four possible", that is, clear boundaries, measurable, assessable, affordable, and curable. It is an important prerequisite for the operation of marketization.
”张悦表示，例如，流域治理、城乡统筹治理等项目，边界不清晰，收入产出、服务内容也无法计量，如果无法明确这些条件，考核会变得更困难，政府支付风险随之增大，支付意愿也会有所下降。 "But with the continuous upgrading of environmental protection and governance requirements, ecological and environmental protection projects have become larger and more complex. " Zhang Yue said, for example, river basin governance, urban and rural integrated governance and other projects, the boundaries are not clear, income output, The service content cannot be measured. If these conditions cannot be specified, the assessment will become more difficult, the government payment risk will increase, and the willingness to pay will decrease.
Similarly, Sun Minghua, Executive Chairman of the Environmental Chamber of Commerce and Executive Vice President of Suez NWS Holdings, also said that in the era of the environmental protection industry 3.0, environmental issues have become more and more complex. Purchase mechanism.
For example, river basin management or urban river channel management has promoted the appreciation of urban land. Can land transfer fees be proportionately used to purchase environmental protection services for river channel management?
As another example, for the ecological restoration of oil fields and mines, a portion of the funds can be extracted from the sales prices of refined oil, chemical products, and mineral products as ecological restoration funds in proportion. These practices all belong to the use of market-oriented mechanisms to provide ecological public goods and services. Once this new marketization mechanism is established, the development of the environmental protection industry can be put on a healthy and stable track.
The original intention of returning to the PPP model
The typical symbol of the environmental industry 3.0 era is the PPP model. According to public information, the Ministry of Finance has nearly 9,000 PPP management projects in the library, with a total investment of 13.6 trillion yuan. 已落地项目约3000个，总投资约2.9万亿。 Among them, the environmental protection sector accounts for more than half, with a total investment of about 4.8 trillion; about 3,000 projects have been launched, and a total investment of about 2.9 trillion.
Compared with other projects, environmental protection, as a highly leveraged business, already requires considerable volume and capital. Domestic authoritative analysis institutions have pointed out that the capital of most environmental protection projects so far is 20% ~ 30%, so the remaining 70% ~ 80% need bank loans. This is also the main factor that favors environmental protection for PPP projects.
In 2014, the State Council issued the "Opinions on Strengthening the Management of Local Government Debts", and local governments also successively launched PPP project libraries, which set off a PPP boom in the market. The environmental protection industry and the PPP model stand on the same wind. Both have ushered in great development, but the rapid "running" after the combination of the PPP model and environmental protection projects has also brought many problems. Such issues have become increasingly prominent, attracted much attention, and even caused many questions.
In 2017, the Ministry of Finance issued the "Notice on Regulating the Management of the Project and Library of the Comprehensive Information Platform for Government and Social Capital Cooperation (PPP)" (hereinafter referred to as "Circular 92"), and the PPP model entered the normative season. Coupled with the influence of factors such as a sound monetary policy, financial "deleveraging", and strengthening of shadow banking supervision, the rapid expansion of debt through the use of debt to expand the development mode of "overnight thunder", cash flow rush, market value shrinkage, and double-debt are common in the environmental protection industry last year .
Many people in the industry said that the PPP model actually wants to solve the problem of providing ecological products and services through marketization. However, this model lacks the pricing mechanism and charging mechanism for ecological products and services, and uses financial funds to purchase ecological products and services. Ecological services are difficult to sustain.
It is reported that the Ministry of Finance last year strengthened the standardization of PPP project operation in accordance with the requirements of Circular 92 and carried out the clean-up and rectification of non-standard PPP projects. It will mainly carry out "two demonstrations" in accordance with regulations, it is not appropriate to continue to implement the PPP model, and it does not meet the requirements of standardized operations 2. Concentrated clean-up of PPP projects that constitute illegal guarantees for raising loans and fail to disclose information in accordance with regulations. As of now, the scale of clearance has reached 2.2 trillion.
Xia Yingzhe, director of the Promotion and Development Department of the PPP Center of the Ministry of Finance, said frankly that the release of Circular 92 is not a “brake” for PPP projects, but a return to the original intention. It is hoped that the government will lead the participation of social capital, promote market-oriented operations, and achieve equal negotiation and risk sharing. Mutual benefit and win-win situation.
”在首创股份副总经理王征戌看来，目前绝大多数的PPP项目，招标时并不完善，或存在边界不清等现象，中标后一定要先梳理项目的本质、目的、边界，与政府一同逐步完善PPP项目设计。 "At present, China's PPP model is still in childhood, and it will mature in the future. This immature stage actually provides enterprises with opportunities to learn and grow. " According to Wang Zhengyu, deputy general manager of Capital Capital , at present, the vast majority of PPPs Projects are not perfect when bidding, or there are unclear borders. After winning the bid, we must first sort out the nature, purpose, and boundaries of the project, and work with the government to gradually improve the design of the PPP project.
”夏颖哲表示，当前，诸多PPP项目都需要可行性缺口补助，需要政府投资，也需要市场化机制运营。 "A good PPP project should have such factors as a transparent pricing mechanism, stable cash flow, appropriate scale, and sufficient competition. " Xia Yingzhe said that currently, many PPP projects require feasibility gap subsidies, government investment, and marketization. Mechanism operation. In order to realize "the green mountains and green mountains are the golden mountains and the silver mountains", we must explore how to turn the advantages of resource environmental protection into a market-oriented mechanism. How to coordinate land resources and how to achieve the driving effect of other resources. How to give play to the role of the industrial chain so that participants can get reasonable benefits.
Xia Yingzhe revealed that the EOD model currently under study is a new attempt to drive development with environmental protection.
From polluters to beneficiaries
What kind of market-oriented mechanism does the environmental protection industry need in the 3.0 era to match? In this regard, Yang Guang, senior vice president of Beijing Enterprises Water Group, said that the era of environmental protection governance 3.0 should promote the concept of "pay for the beneficiaries of environmental protection", and change from paying by polluters to paying by beneficiaries. Because eco-environmental protection has a huge investment in the process of governance, repair and improvement, it is inseparable from the long-term operation and management and maintenance of all parties.
In response to the concept of "paying for environmental protection beneficiaries," Yang Guang made four suggestions. First of all, the central and local governments firmly implement the "two mountains theory" governance concept, and local governments explore the introduction of charging mechanisms and charging methods for ecological products and services based on local ecological governance inputs.
Secondly, establish a charging mechanism in the field of sewage treatment, and implement as soon as possible the level of fees that can truly meet the cost requirements of the construction and operation of drainage and sewage treatment facilities and sludge treatment and disposal.
Third, in the field of comprehensive water environment management, link water environment improvement and ecological improvement planning with urban development planning, combine ecological project investment planning with regional development planning, calculate investment and operating costs required for water ecological governance projects in a certain life cycle, and promote Charges are allocated reasonably to form a sustainable investment and financing mechanism.
Fourth, to break the management concepts of some cities, authorize enterprises to conduct full operation and development of ecological governance projects, simplify the approval process, reduce regulations and fees, and the government and enterprises share incremental economic benefits.
Li Yonggang, deputy general manager of Chengdu Environmental Protection Investment Group Co., Ltd., said that a more reasonable financial system can be established to support the development of the environmental protection industry. For example, the establishment of a fund based on capital holdings of environmental protection returns, with the company responsible for professional operations, will give the environmental protection industry a chance to start again through the reconstruction of its business model.
”李勇刚表示，市场也有退出机制，有“优胜劣汰”，经历2018年的“洗礼”，面对环保产业市场形势的变化，产业需要冷静期，企业更需要自省期。 "A good market-oriented mechanism has been established, and an access mechanism has been formed. With the payment mechanism, the entire industry can usher in a booming period of development. " Li Yonggang said that the market also has an exit mechanism and a "survival of the fittest." "Baptism", in the face of changes in the market situation of the environmental protection industry, the industry needs a cooling-off period, and enterprises need a period of introspection. Source: Entrepreneurial state of environmental protection: Chen Wan